Therapeutic ultrasound is in the frequency range of 0.9 - 3 MHz
Ultrasound is used to:
By using a different frequency the therapist can target tissues at different depths for either healing or destruction, or simply use the device to reduce pain. The lower the frequency used, the deeper is the penetration of the waves into the body. By varying the frequency from continuous to intermittent, the amount of heat applied can likewise be controlled by the physiotherapist.
break up scar tissue and adhesions
reduce inflammation, swelling and calcium deposits
create a deep heat to a localized area to ease muscle spasms (much deeper than can be achieved with a hot pack - up to 5 cm)
increase soft tissue extensibility prior to stretching and exercise
facilitate healing at the cellular level
speeds metabolism and improves blood flow
reduces nerve root irritation
at low intensities can speed bone healing
enhance transcutaneous drug delivery by phonophoresis
Contusions are one of the most frequent and debilitating injuries encountered in sports medicine. Contusions may be caused by shearing and tension between over-stressed body parts but the most common cause is compression of soft tissue, usually when it is crushed between bone and some hard surface. This invariably involves capillary rupture and infiltrative bleeding, followed by edema, inflammation and hematoma. A complication, myositis ossificans, a syndrome in which the body starts laying down calcium deposits within the muscle causing pain and disfunction can occur if not treated. Quick and effective treatment is crucial in sports injuries. Proper and efficient healing is essential to the health and career of any athlete, regardless of how minor or major the injury. Basic treatment involves the application of ice to contain the immediate inflammation, followed by timely applications of ultrasound to reduce the subsequent edema and further stimulate the healing process.
Ultrasound is effective in treating wounds in both the inflammatory and the proliferative stages. Ultrasound causes a degranulation of mast cells resulting in the release of histamine and other chemical mediators. These mediators felt to play a role in attracting neutrophils and monocytes to the injured site. These and other events appear to accelerate the acute inflammatory phase and promote healing.
In the proliferative phase of healing, ultrasound effects fibroblasts and stimulates them to secrete collagen accelerating the process of wound contraction and increases the tensile strength of the healing tissue. Connective tissues will elongate better if both heat and stretch are applied. Continuous ultrasound at higher therapeutic intensities provides an effective means of heating deeper tissues prior to stretching them.
Its effectiveness has been enhanced over the years by studies which help determine optimum techniques and patterns of application, and a wide range of injuries have shown to be responsive to this non-invasive therapy.